Zeno of Citium

Zeno was a Greek philosopher and the founder of Stoicism.  His core belief was that the universe itself is an animate and rational being--a divine soul.  With this pantheistic lack of distinction between creator and created, between physical and spiritual, Zeno's world view was closer to that of Taoism, Vedanta, or some varieties of Sufism than to orthodox Christianity or Islam.  It followed that our role on earth is to live according to Nature, accepting our destiny unquestioningly for it embodies the sacred will of the universe.  As a result of this fatalism, the term Stoicism has become synonymous with patience, long-suffering, and renunciation of desire.  Yet Zeno's philosophy was much more, encompassing logic, ethics, and physics.  Influenced by Diogenes of Sinope, Zeno preached a rational attitude toward sexuality, advocating equality of the sexes, the unnecessariness of clothing, and what today would be called free love.